Showing posts with label bleaching. Show all posts
Showing posts with label bleaching. Show all posts

Bleaching of Pulp in the Paper Making Process

The purpose of the bleaching process is to enhance the physical and optical qualities (whiteness and brightness) of the pulp by removing or decolorizing the lignin. Two approaches are used in the chemical bleaching of pulps. One approach called brightening, uses selective chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide, that destroy chromatographic groups but do not attack the lignin. Brightening produces a product with a temporary brightness (such as newspaper) that discolors from exposure to sunlight or oxygen. The other approach (true bleaching) seeks to almost totally remove residual lignin by adding oxidizing chemicals to the pulp in varying combinations of sequences, depending on the end use of the product. This creates a longer lasting (sometimes permanent) whiteness, but it weakens the fibers and reduces sheet strength. The most common bleaching and brightening agents are chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide.

Typically, the pulp is treated with each chemical in a separate stage. Each stage includes a tower, where the bleaching occurs; a washer, which removes bleaching chemicals and dissolved lignins from the pulp prior to entering the next stage; and a seal tank, which collects the washer effluent to be used as wash water in other stages or to be sewered. Bleaching processes use various combinations of chemical stages called bleaching sequences.

The first stage in the bleaching process is the chlorination stage, whose primary function is to further delignify the pulp. Chlorine reacts with lignin to form compounds that are water-soluble or soluble in an alkaline medium, which aids in delignifying the pulp before it proceeds to the next bleaching stage.

The next stage after chlorination is typically the extraction stage. This stage and the remaining stages serve to bleach and whiten the delignified pulp. The extraction stage removes the chlorinated and oxidized lignin by solubilization in a caustic solution.

Chlorine dioxide is often used in bleaching, either in the chlorination stage (as a substitute for some of the chlorine usage - chlorine dioxide substitution) or as an additional chlorine dioxide stage. Chlorine dioxide has 2.63 times greater oxidizing power (on a pound per pound basis) than chlorine and is used for nearly all high brightness pulps.

The next stage is the actual bleaching stage. Hypochlorite is a true bleaching agent that destroys certain chromophobic groups of lignin. It also attacks the pulp so high cellulose degradation occurs in Kraft pulp. Application of hypochlorite to Kraft pulp is usually used only as an intermediate stage of the sequence or to produce semi-bleached pulps. In the bleach process, residual chlorine must be removed through washing in vacuum washers.

Abstracted from Washington State
Air Toxic Sources and Emission
Estimation Methods